While the fourteenth century may be too early to speak of "nations" in the modern sense of the term, in 1414 when the Holy Roman Emperor assembled at Constance, Germany to settle the Great Schism, voting for a new Vicar of Christ took place on a purely national basis. Instead of the traditional assembly of bishops, the council included lay representatives and was organized as a convention of "nations". Each nation had one vote.
Ironically, while the beginnings of nationalism may find its roots in Germany, it is in Germany that we may also find its excess. After World War I right-wing governments sprang up all over Europe, but the greatest was German national Socialism, better known as Nazism. The leader of the Nazi movement was Austrian-born Adolf Hitler, who was named chancellor of the German Republic on 30 January 1933. Two years later he gained complete control of the government. The Nazis taught the world the meaning of totalitarianism. They were a right-wing version of dictatorial rule called "fascism". Such governments counter personal frustration and alienation, as well as social and economic tensions, by stressing class unity and reaffirming traditional values. Fascist movements glorify the nation.
[tags]BlogRodent, church-history, ChurchRodent, Great-Schism, history, Nationalism, Nazism[/tags]