ChurchRodent

Nathan Soderblom

(1866-1931) Lutheran Archbishop of Uppsala in Sweden. Was the founder and chief promoter of the Life and Work Movement. When the King of Sweden unexpectedly appointed him archbishop in 1914, conservatives within the church questioned his orthodoxy. Soderblom rejected faith in the divine and human nature of Christ because he…

Thirty Years War

(1618-1648) A war waged in the early 17th century that involved France, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, and numerous states of Germany. The causes of the war were rooted in national rivalries and in conflict between Roman Catholics and Protestants. For all the bloodshed, there was no decisive winner or loser;…

Vatican Council I

(1870) This council represented the culmination of a movement called "ultramontanism," standing for devotion to Rome (across the mountains, the Alps. Go figure.). The council opened in Rome on 8 December 1869. The question of the definition of papal infallibility the item on the agenda. The Catholics had little doubt…

Westminster Assembly

(1642-1649) Held in 1642 through 1649 at Westminster, London, England, the majority voice at the Assembly held to Presbyterian principles and expressed these convictions classically in the Westminster Confession of Faith and in the Westminster Larger and Shorter Catechisms. [tags]BlogRodent, church-history, ChurchRodent, history, Westminster-Assembly, Westminster-Confession-of-Faith[/tags]  

Aesculapius

A heathen god, who protected the sick and the hospitals. While a man lay sick in bed, a priest would walk the aisles chanting to this god. This presented some difficulty for the Christians who desired to help the sick and infirm. [tags]Aesculapius, BlogRodent, church-history, ChurchRodent, history[/tags]  

Arius

Pastor of the influential Baucalis Church in Alexandria where Alexander was bishop. Around A.D. 318, Arius challenged Alexandrian teachers by asserting that Christ’s divinity was not of the same order of God’s, since he was a created Being — sort of half-God, for "the Son has a beginning, but … God is…

Barbarians

Barbarians were Europeans who spoke no Greek nor Latin who eventually mastered Europe as the Roman Empire deteriorated. For the most part they were tribes from the north, originally in or near Scandinavia — Vandals, Franks, Angles, Saxons, Goths, Lombards, Burgundians and others. In the third century they were at a…

William Booth

(1829-1912) The most outstanding example of ministry to the dispossessed was the work of a pietistic evangelical William Booth. He started his ministry with the Methodist New Connection but soon withdrew to work with London’s poor. His street preaching in London’s East End in 1864 met with phenomenal success. Within…

Church of England

While other influences contributed to the break with Rome, succession to the throne was the primary constitutional factor in the transformation of the Church in England into the church of England. For centuries the Church in England had been moving toward independence from Rome. by Luther’s time, most patriotic Englishmen…

Constantine

Constantine represents the passing of the Age of Catholic Christianity, and the beginning of the Age of the Christian Empire. Upon the death of Galerius, Constantine, the son of Constantius Chlorus, advanced across the Alps to dislodge his rival Maxentius from Italy and to capture Rome. When he came upon…

Denis Diderot

When Voltaire was an influential propagandist for Deism and had many disciples, his only serious rival was a set of books — the famous French Encyclopedia edited by Denis Diderot (1713-1784) The seventeen volumes of the Encyclopedia constituted the chief monument of the philosophies. They heralded the supremacy of the new…

Edict of Nantes

From 1562 to 1598 France suffered a series of civil wars between Roman Catholics and French Calvinists (or Huguenots). When both parties reached the point of utter fatigue they agreed to a territorial compromise in the royal Edict of Nantes (1598). The Huguenots gained religious freedom and political control of…

Evangelical

(See also "Evangelical Awakening") Most of the basic beliefs of evangelicals could be found in Puritanism: the sinfulness of man, the atoning death of Christ, the unmerited grace of God, the salvation of the true believer. The early evangelicals served as rectors in parishes scattered throughout England. One such was…

German Christians

In 1933 the Fuhrer signed a concordat with the pope guaranteeing the freedom to practice the Catholic religion. At the same time a movement called the "German Christians" arose among Protestants aimed at closer ties with the Nazis. The German Christians wanted to unite the twenty-eight regional Protestant bodies under…

Irenaeus

The bishop of Lyons in Gaul, he wrote five monumental books against the gnostic heresies of his area, together with a book entitled Proof of the Apostolic Preaching …. His theology was grounded in the Bible and the church’s doctrines and helped to provide a steadying, positive influence in the church.…

Julian

An Emperor (332-363), considered one of Christianity’s worst enemies. He wanted to set aside Christianity and bring back the ancient Roman faith, but he saw clearly the drawing power of Christian love in practice: "Atheism (i.e. Christian faith) has been specially advanced through the loving service rendered to strangers, and…

Philip Melanchthon

On Luther’s death, Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560) took over the theological leadership of the movement he had begun. Melanchthon taught Greek, first in Tubingen, then at the University of Wittenberg. There in 1518 he met Luther, changing Melanchthon from a humanist into a theologian and reformer. Gifted for logical consistency and…

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