ChurchRodent

Ambrose

Bishop of Milan who deeply affected Augustine by his eloquent and intelligent messages. Threatened the Christian emperor Theodisius in Milan with excommunication for killing 7,000 Thessalonians in A.D. 390. His threat eventually humiliated the emperor, and its precedent set a pattern for the Catholic church to this day. [tags]Ambrose, Augustine,…

Cerdo

A Gnostic teacher (about A.D. 140) who believed that the God of the Old Testament was different from the God and Father of the Lord Jesus Christ. The God of the Old Testament, he said, was unknowable, the Christian God had been revealed. The Old Testament God was sheer justice;…

John Cotton

A distinguished minister from Southampton, England. In 1630 he preached a farewell sermon for more than 400 emigrants who had gathered to sail to the New World. Cotton declared that like the ancient Israelites these emigrants were God’s chosen people, headed for the land he had promised and prepared. That…

Jansenism

The most aggressive opposition to the "cheap grace" of the French Jesuits came from a movement called Jansenism. Cornelius Jansen (1585-1638) was a Dutchman who had adopted St. Augustine’s views of sin and grace at the University of Louvain. He came to believe that the best way to defend Catholicism…

Liberal Theology

Professor Kenneth Cauthen finds two fundamental types of liberalism. He calls them "evangelical liberalism" and "modernistic liberalism". Evangelical liberals took greater confidence in Christian experience. Modernistic liberals found greater confidence in "modern thought." Liberals believed that theology had to come to terms with science if it hoped to claim and…

Modernism

According to Shailer Matthews, professor of historical theology and Dean of the Divinity School at the University of Chicago, "the modernist uses Scripture as the trustworthy record and product of a developing religion. … In discovering this experience of God and accepting it as his own religious ancestry, the modernist affirms…

Patrick

Raised an English Christian, Patrick was captured by Scots, Celts from Ireland, and was carried to Ireland to be a swineherd. He escaped and found himself in France where he went to a monastery on an island of the Mediterranean Sea, but he finally went home to England again to…

Prohibition

The Eighteenth Amendment outlawed alcoholic beverages across the country after January, 1920. This was probably the last successful evangelical crusade for a moral America. William Jennings Bryan wrote that those who labored for prohibition "are helping to create conditions which will bring the highest good to the greatest number, … for…

Secularism

With the eventual rejection of deism, its negative work remained and Christianity was not restored to its originally central place in Western culture. Modern culture — its art, education, and politics — was freed from formal Christian influence. Men made a deliberate attempt to organize a religiously neutral civilization. This meant that…

The Silent William

In the Netherlands Calvinism offered a rallying point for opposition to the oppressive rule of Catholic Spain. Calvinist ministers were among the earliest leaders of resistance groups. The liberation leader of the national party in the northern province of the Netherlands was William the Silent. He joined the reformed church…

Arius

Pastor of the influential Baucalis Church in Alexandria where Alexander was bishop. Around A.D. 318, Arius challenged Alexandrian teachers by asserting that Christ’s divinity was not of the same order of God’s, since he was a created Being — sort of half-God, for "the Son has a beginning, but … God is…

William Booth

(1829-1912) The most outstanding example of ministry to the dispossessed was the work of a pietistic evangelical William Booth. He started his ministry with the Methodist New Connection but soon withdrew to work with London’s poor. His street preaching in London’s East End in 1864 met with phenomenal success. Within…

Church of England

While other influences contributed to the break with Rome, succession to the throne was the primary constitutional factor in the transformation of the Church in England into the church of England. For centuries the Church in England had been moving toward independence from Rome. by Luther’s time, most patriotic Englishmen…

Edict of Nantes

From 1562 to 1598 France suffered a series of civil wars between Roman Catholics and French Calvinists (or Huguenots). When both parties reached the point of utter fatigue they agreed to a territorial compromise in the royal Edict of Nantes (1598). The Huguenots gained religious freedom and political control of…

Julian

An Emperor (332-363), considered one of Christianity’s worst enemies. He wanted to set aside Christianity and bring back the ancient Roman faith, but he saw clearly the drawing power of Christian love in practice: "Atheism (i.e. Christian faith) has been specially advanced through the loving service rendered to strangers, and…

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