ChurchRodent

Martin Bucer

(1491-1551) A supporter of the Zwinglian type of reformation. From Strassburg, Germany, he was surpassed in influence throughout Germany only by Luther and his associate Melanchthon and was inclined to sympathize with Zwingli rather than Luther. [tags]BlogRodent, church-history, ChurchRodent, history, Martin-Bucer[/tags]  

Frederick V

When Jesuit-educated Ferdinand II was named the king of Bohemia — only shortly before he was elected Holy Roman Emperor, the Bohemian nobles, mostly Protestants, rose in revolt and offered their crown to Frederick V, the ardent Calvinist ruler of the Palatinate, one of the major German territories. Frederick’s acceptance touched…

Holiness Movement

During the late 1800s other evangelicals turned to holiness conferences. Concern for a "second blessing", "entire sanctification", or "Christian perfection" had always been a main tenet of Methodist revivalism. In the late nineteenth century, members of other religious communions came to share this concern. Holiness groups, such as the Church…

Wilhelm Ketteler

In Roman Catholic circles, as early as 1848, a German bishop, Wilhelm Ketteler (1811-1877), addressed the problem of the factory worker in sermons and books. He sketched out a Catholic solution that pointed out the dangers in both the unlimited competition of capitalism and the exaggerated state control of the…

Nestorius

A famous preacher at Antioch whom the Emperor made bishop of Constantinople in 428. This imperial capital gave Nestorius a platform. From it he tried to defend the position of his teacher in the faith, Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia, near Antioch. Nestorius rejected a popular designation of Mary as the…

John Rogers

A year after Tyndales’s death, English reformer John Rogers edited a compilation of Tyndale and Coverdale’s translation work and published the Matthew Bible. At Thomas Cranmer’s request, Henry VIII authorized that this Bible, revised by Coverdale and called the "Great Bible," be bought and read throughout the realm. [tags]BlogRodent, church-history,…

Voluntary Society

Originally set in motion by William Carey, the voluntary society was a voluntary association of Christians to a common end. The missionary society was one early form, and the voluntary society transformed nineteenth-century Christianity. It was invented to meet a need rather than for theological reasons, but in effect it…

Aesculapius

A heathen god, who protected the sick and the hospitals. While a man lay sick in bed, a priest would walk the aisles chanting to this god. This presented some difficulty for the Christians who desired to help the sick and infirm. [tags]Aesculapius, BlogRodent, church-history, ChurchRodent, history[/tags]  

Barbarians

Barbarians were Europeans who spoke no Greek nor Latin who eventually mastered Europe as the Roman Empire deteriorated. For the most part they were tribes from the north, originally in or near Scandinavia — Vandals, Franks, Angles, Saxons, Goths, Lombards, Burgundians and others. In the third century they were at a…

Constantine

Constantine represents the passing of the Age of Catholic Christianity, and the beginning of the Age of the Christian Empire. Upon the death of Galerius, Constantine, the son of Constantius Chlorus, advanced across the Alps to dislodge his rival Maxentius from Italy and to capture Rome. When he came upon…

Denis Diderot

When Voltaire was an influential propagandist for Deism and had many disciples, his only serious rival was a set of books — the famous French Encyclopedia edited by Denis Diderot (1713-1784) The seventeen volumes of the Encyclopedia constituted the chief monument of the philosophies. They heralded the supremacy of the new…

Evangelical

(See also "Evangelical Awakening") Most of the basic beliefs of evangelicals could be found in Puritanism: the sinfulness of man, the atoning death of Christ, the unmerited grace of God, the salvation of the true believer. The early evangelicals served as rectors in parishes scattered throughout England. One such was…

German Christians

In 1933 the Fuhrer signed a concordat with the pope guaranteeing the freedom to practice the Catholic religion. At the same time a movement called the "German Christians" arose among Protestants aimed at closer ties with the Nazis. The German Christians wanted to unite the twenty-eight regional Protestant bodies under…

Irenaeus

The bishop of Lyons in Gaul, he wrote five monumental books against the gnostic heresies of his area, together with a book entitled Proof of the Apostolic Preaching …. His theology was grounded in the Bible and the church’s doctrines and helped to provide a steadying, positive influence in the church.…

Philip Melanchthon

On Luther’s death, Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560) took over the theological leadership of the movement he had begun. Melanchthon taught Greek, first in Tubingen, then at the University of Wittenberg. There in 1518 he met Luther, changing Melanchthon from a humanist into a theologian and reformer. Gifted for logical consistency and…

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