King of Sardinia and head of the national unity movement. In Florence in March 1861 he was proclaimed King of Italy. When Italian nationalists invaded Rome and the city surrendered on 20 September 1870 Pius IX soon withdrew into the Vatican. In June 1871 Victor Emmanuel transferred his residence to Rome, ignoring all protests and excommunications of the pope. He offered the pope an annual subsidy together with the free and unhindered exercise of all his spiritual functions. But Pius rejected the offer. There remained a split in the religious and governmental Italy until Benito Mussolini concluded the Lateran Treaty in February 1929, when the pope renounced all claims to the former Papal States, and received full sovereignty in the small Vatican State.
[tags]Benito-Mussolini, BlogRodent, church-history, ChurchRodent, history, Lateran-Treaty, Victor-Emanuel-II[/tags]